FANDOM


  • NEP

Options Chart

  • Reactor

Architecture (w/study)

  • First US reactor in space: SNAP-10A
    • USAF April 1965
  • TOPAZ
    • USSR
    • Begun 1961
    • Thermionic reactor
      • Two

variants

      • TOPAZ 1
        • Flown

in 1987 on Cosmos 1818 and Cosmos 1867

        • 5 kWE for 3-5 years
        • 12 kg fuel
        • mass 320 kg
      • TOPAZ II
        • First seen by west 1991
        • 96% enriched UO2
        • ZrH Moderator
        • rotating beryllium drums
        • NaK coolant
        • Six brought to US and extensively (and sucessfully) tested reactor

while unfueled

          • Very nice feature to have with your reactor
        • None ever flown
  • Pebblebed
    • SAFE (Safe Affordable Fission Engine
      • Currently SAFE-400
      • 400 kWT
      • 100 kWE
      • Closed Brayton
      • Uranium nitride fuel
      • rhenium cladding
      • Molybdenum-sodium coolant
    • TEM “transport and energy unit” (per wikipedia)
      • Russia
      • Russian Keldysh Research Center NIKIET (Research and Design Institute

of Power Engineering) institute and Rosatom

      • Reactor
        • He/Xe coolant
        • 3.8 MWT, 1 MWe
        • Xenon propellant
        • Thrust 18 N
        • isp 700 s
  • Power

Conversion Systems (w/max, min, and ideal inlet and exhaust temp)

  • Brayton
    • Same as most gas turbines
    • Closed cycles developed using most of the inert gasses as working

fluids, He and Xe being popular

  • Rankine
    • Same as most steam turbines
    • Not as popular as Brayton, partly due to phase change in working

fluid that has to extend over wide range of temperatures

  • Sterling
    • Also called a “thermal engine,” this is being looked at for next

generation RTG.

    • Minimum of moving parts, able to operate with much lower temperature

gradient

  • Thermoelectric
    • Graphene
    • AMTEC
      • Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter
      • NASA program
      • Theoretical materials solution to energy conversion, reducing moving

parts and maintenance/failure probability

  • Pyroelectric
  • Thermionic
    • Temperature difference causes a carrier charge
  • Propellant
  • Argon
    • Colloid
    • Ion and electrostatic
  • Helium
  • Bismuth
  • Krypton
  • Magnesium
  • Iodine
  • Cadmium
    • Easy to ionize
    • erodes grid
    • popular before Xe
  • Mercury (same as above)
  • Caesium (same as above)
  • Xenon
    • Currently most popular
    • Ionizes easily
    • doesn’t react to grids or other thruster parts
  • Thruster

type

  • Electrostatic
    • Gridded Electrostatic Ion Thrusters
      • Xenon
      • NASA NSTAR
  • Radiofrequency ion thruster
  • Hall Effect Thrusters
  • Xenon, Bismuth, Iodine
  • SPT – Stationary Plasma Thruster
  • TAL – Thruster with Anode Layer
  • Colloid ion thruster
  • Field Emission Electric Propulsion
  • Caesium, Indium
  • Nano-particle field extraction thruster
  • Electrothermal
  • Arcjet
  • Resistojet
  • Electromagnetic
  • Electrodeless plasma thruster
  • Magnetoplasmadynamic thruster
  • Pulsed Inductive Thruster
  • Pulsed Plasma Thruster
  • Helicon Double Layer Thruster
  • VASIMR
  • Photon

drives

  • Comparison

to BNTR

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